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Undergraduate ProGRAM


General Information

LIBERAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS

The Council of Liberal Education (CLE) requirements apply to all students regardless of college enrollment. The CLE requirements have two parts; the Diversified Core and the Designated Theme.

CORE

One course of at least three credits in each of the following:

• Arts/Humanities
• Historical Perspectives
• Literature
• Mathematical Thinking
• Social Science            

One course of at least four credits, with a laboratory or field experience, in each of the following:

• Physical Science
• Biological Science            

THEMES

A minimum of one course of at least three credits in each of the following thematic areas:

• Civic Life and Ethics
• Diversity & Social Justice in the US
• The Environment
• Global Perspectives
• Technology & Society            

Courses may be certified for both a Core and a Theme if the theme is fully infused into the Core course.

 

Writing Requirement

Students are required to take four WI courses in addition to freshman writing as currently required by various units and offered by English, Rhetoric, and General College. To avoid multiplying requirements, many (but not all) WI courses will be those already fulfilling Liberal Education Core and Theme requirements. At least two of the four required courses must be taken at the 3-level or above. It is expected that, at a minimum, one upper division WI course will be offered within each major or program area. More than one WI course per major is certainly encouraged, especially in the case of majors with few electives. Upper division WI courses whose primary focus is writing instruction will count as fulfilling two of the four WI requirements; such courses cannot substitute, however, for freshman writing or for the one course minimum WI requirement in each major or program area.

Useful Site Regarding Writing Requirements

The Center for Writing http://writing.umn.edu/

All of the Advanced Chemistry Labs are Writing Intensive (Chem 4094, 4111, 4311, 4511, 4711 and 4223)

POSSIBLE ELECTIVES

The courses listed below are possible electives and are not necessarily recommended courses. You may wish to choose an area of study in which you wish to concentrate your elective courses. Below are some possible options. It is recommended that you consult an advisor as to selection of possible courses. If you are unsure of the content of a course, you should go to the department offering the course to obtain a course syllabus.

Teaching Chemistry

Students who wish to teach Chemistry at the Junior and Senior High School level should consult with the Education Student Affairs Office in the College of Education 625-6501 and review the Education Bulletin for requirements. The College of Education's postbaccalaureate programs are for individuals with bachelor's degrees who want to become licensed K-12 teachers. Postbaccalaureate students are admitted to the science education program on the basis of:

  • fully developed knowledge base in the life, earth, or physical sciences,
  • Bachelor's degree with a 2.5 GPA overall and in major course work,
  • A writing sample addressing philosophy of science education and professional goals,
  • Two letters of recommendation, and
  • Work or volunteer experience with students that demonstrates commitment to teaching.

Chemistry And Business

The Carlson School's Management Minor provides an excellent opportunity for students to gain a broad exposure to the basic elements of business and management. Adding a Management Minor to your current major enhances your preparation for professional school (e.g. Law, MBA) or for entering a career upon graduation. The Management Minor is available to students in all majors. Applications for admission to the Management Minor are accepted in the Fall or Spring semester. Deadlines are April 1 for Fall semester and November 1 for Spring semester. General eligibility requirements include:

  • Completion of the following courses:
    Econ 1101, Microeconomics (4cr)
    Math 1031, College Algebra (4 cr) (An advanced math course will also meet the requirement)
    OMS 1550, Business Statistics (4cr) (or Stat 3011, 3021, or 3022, Psych 4801, or Soc 3811)
    (Macroeconomics is also recommended but not required)
  • A 3.0 GPA or higher (in some cases, students with a GPA lower than 3.0 may be considered).
  • Applicants are asked to submit a paragraph with their application explaining their interest in the minor and how it fits into their educational and career goals.

Minor requirements include:

  • Acct 2050, Introduction to Financial Accounting (4cr)
  • 12 credits chosen from the list below:
    Acct 3001, Introduction to Managerial Accounting (3cr)
    Fina 3001, Finance Fundamentals (3cr)
    HRIR 3021, Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations (3cr)
    IDSc 3001, Information Systems for Business Processes and Management (3cr)
    Mgmt 3001, Principles of Management (3cr)
    Mktg 3001, Principles of Marketing (3cr)
    OMS 3001, Operations Management (3cr)

All coursework must be completed with a C- or better. No more than one course may be transferred from outside the University of Minnesota to fulfill minor requirements. Transfer courses may be accepted for prerequisite courses upon review and are not included in two-course limit. The Institute of Technology recommends its students take Mgmt 3001, Mktg 3001, Fina 3001, and Acct 3001.

Chemistry And The Environment:

The Environment and Natural Resources (ENR) minor provides students in programs such as biology, education, journalism, political science, and others with the basic understanding to recognize, evaluate and develop solutions to a range of environmental problems. Students are encouraged to focus their coursework on either (1) Environmental Management and Policy or (2) Environmental Science. Students interested in the minor should visit their website.

Chemistry And The Food Industry:

For an undergraduate minor in food science you will need to take a minimum of 20 credits from the list of courses below. Many of the listed courses have prerequisites which do not count towards the 20 credits.

FScN 1102 Food: Safety Risks and Technology (3cr)
FScN 3102 Introduction to Food Science (3cr)
FScN 4111 Food Chemistry (3cr)
FScN 4121 Food Micro and Fermentations (3cr)
FScN 4122 Lab in Micro and Fermentations (2cr)
FScN 4131 Food Quality (3cr)
FScN 4312 Food Analysis (4cr)
FScN 4332 Food Processing Operations (3cr)
FScN 4xxx Food Science Elective with a Capstone designation (3-4cr)
BAE 4744 Engineering Principles for Biological Scientists (4cr)

To declare a minor in Food Science, contact Robin Perez, Professional Advisor for Food Science and Nutrition, 612-625-9858.

CBS MINORS
To declare a minor in Biochemistry, Biology, Microbiology, or Plant Biology, complete the online form at http://www.cbs.umn.edu/students/cbs-minors

MATH MINOR
Beyond the required Math needed in the CSE Chemistry program: 1271, 1272, 2243, 2263
You will need to take Math 2283 and two 4xxx or 5xxx level courses.

GENERAL ADVISING INFORMATION AND COMMON QUESTIONS

Residency Requirements

CSE - A student earning a bachelor's degree must complete 30 credits after admission to CSE, of which at least 20 credits must be completed in the Sr. year.

CLA - 20 of the last 30 credits must be completed in CLA at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities campus.

Chemistry - At least 10 credits of advanced chemistry courses of which at least one lab course must be taken at the University of Minnesota.

What is the difference between Lower and Upper Division?

In CLA you are considered to be in Upper Division after you have declared your major. In CSE, you are considered to be in Upper Division when you have more than 60 credits.

When should you declare your major

In CLA you can declare your major after you have taken 26 credits. To declare a chemistry major you need to see an advisor in the Chemistry Advising Office and complete the Degree Program Form. After completing the form with an advisor, the form should be brought to B18 Johnston Hall.

In CSE it is upon acceptance to upper division that you are officially in a major field of study. Students are eligible to apply for upper division, in their field or major of choice, and will be accepted provided they have earned a cumulative grade point average of 2.0 (on a 4.0 scale) for all of the lower division coursework, which must total at least 47 credits. All grades including F's and N's will be used in determining the GPA. That includes grades earned in courses that are repeated in which case both grades count. Transfer students are usually admitted into the upper division of their major field upon admission to either college.

How do you apply to Upper Division

CLA - After completing the lower division requirements you need to complete the Degree Program Form with a chemistry advisor and bring the form to B-18 Johnston Hall for final processing.

CSE - Students should apply in the College Office 128 Lind Hall during the fourth semester or upon completion of a minimum of 47 credits of coursework. The application will permit you to list your first, second and third choices for a major. Students who do not meet upper division admission requirements may not be permitted to continue in IT upon completion of lower division coursework.

Double Major In CSE

Students interested in having two majors (in CSE) may submit a petition to 128 Lind Hall requesting the addition of the second major. (Be sure to attach a transcript.) Your computer record will carry both major codes which you may need to enter controlled courses. The transcript will also show both majors. You may receive both degrees at the same time or one before the other. Be sure to keep in contact with both departments regarding individual departmental requirements.

Second Major In Another College

Degrees from other colleges can be obtained at the same time or by completing the degree in one college before transferring to the other college for that degree. Keep in mind that most colleges have residency requirements, i.e. minimum number of credits taken in that college. If the other college (or CSE) is willing to waive the residency requirement you may pursue and receive both bachelor's degrees at the same time. If you stay in CSE, you will need to provide transcripts to the other department and college with which you are working. Be sure to apply for both degrees.

Some colleges have special requirements for their degrees (such as a foreign language), that you may not wish to complete. Nevertheless recognition may be earned for completion of requirements for a "major" in a particular subject of a college. The procedure for formal recognition of that work in CLA is as follows:

Pick up the major program from the appropriate department. Keep the form.
After applying for your CSE degree, bring the form and a transcript to the appropriate CLA Upper Division Office.
Bring your final grades to the upper division office. The following statement will then be posted to your record after the CSE degree: "Also fulfills the course requirements of a (major name) in (subject) as of (date). Fulfillment of these requirements does not imply fulfillment of the graduation requirements of the College of Liberal Arts."

Receive a minor in a different college

A number of departments offer minors and it may be worth your time to check with the department you are interested in. Receive a minor program form from the proposed minor department. This form should list the courses that fulfill the requirements for the minor. After you complete all the course work for your minor, and have paid your graduation fee in your college, bring a current transcript and your minor program form to the appropriate college office. You may also need to complete an "Application for Minor in a Second College" form. It is also possible to receive a Management Minor through the Carlson School of Management. For more information see the Office of the Center for the Development of Technological Leadership in 107 Lind Hall.

Exemption For Industrial Work

It is possible to receive exemption for industrial work for specific courses but not in place of directed studies. Formal permission must be received from the Director of Undergraduate Studies and the Coordinator of the specialty area whose course is to be exempted and a total of up to 5 credits will be the maximum awarded for outside work. A letter from the job supervisor must accompany the request.

Testing out of a course

Students may apply to take Special Examinations for any University course in which they feel adequately prepared. Students need to apply in their college office. The cost is $30 per examination.

How do you get on the Dean's List

In CLA there are two Dean's Lists. The first is the All A's List. The second is the 2/3rds A List. In IT, students whose academic performance each term places them in the top 10% of their respective class qualify for the Dean's List. Students must complete 12 credits or more to be eligible. The credits may be completed in day school or extension. Only A-F grading, of the minimum 12 credits, is used in considering who is on the Dean's List.

First Day of Class

All students must attend the first class meeting of every course in which they are registered. Those students who fail to attend the first meeting of either the lecture or lab will forfeit their place. If it is not possible to be there on the first day, notify the instructor and/or appropriate departmental office prior to the first day. Due to the high demand for chemistry courses it is important for the Chemistry Department to strictly enforce the regulation requiring attendance on the first day of class.

Use of Petitions

CLA - Request for amendment of major program forms are used when a CLA student needs to make changes to the required chemistry curriculum. These forms need the department approval. Students wishing to make amendments should see a Chemistry Advisor.

CSE - Petition forms are available in either 128 Lind Hall or 135 Smith Hall and are used to seek approval for that which falls outside of regular policy matters. Petitions may be used to, change a major, add a major, to repeat a course in which you have received a grade of C or higher, to substitute a course to fulfill a requirement, to change the grading system for a course after the first two weeks of the quarter due to unusual circumstances. You must attach a transcript if the petition deals with: a.) Liberal Education requirements, b.) Change of Major, c.) Adding a Major, d.) Transfer of credits to IT. Petitions should be dropped off in boxes across from 128 Lind Hall. Results will be processed within 1-2 weeks and mailed to students. In general it is good advice to file a petition for any requirement change, substitution, or exemption to your degree program.

REGISTRATION

All Chemistry majors need to have a one-year plan on file in the Chemistry Advising Office (135 Smith Hall) prior to Fall Registration. This is the only way to receive computer approval. To register by computer go to: http://onestop.umn.edu/

Departmental Policy on I Grade

The policy of the Chemistry Department is that a student may request an incomplete only when (a) he or she has a University sanctioned excuse for missing the final exam and (b) he or she is passing the course based on all other graded components. Assignment of an I requires that the instructor and student sign a contract, available in the Departmental undergraduate office, stipulating the procedure by which the I grade will be made up (e.g., taking a final exam from another instructor in the next semester). Failure to complete successfully the procedure outlined in the contract will result in the I being administratively changed by the University Registrar to an F or N (depending on the grade base) one calendar year from the end of the semester for which the I grade was granted.

Students will not be permitted to repeat an entire course without registering.

See the College Bulletin for further information.

ORGANIZATION OF DEPARTMENT'S UNDERGRADUATE TEACHING FUNCTION

In case you experience problems in a course it is important to know the proper avenue to proceed with questions and complaints. If the problem is with a faculty member in a lecture or lab course you should first try to resolve it with the faculty member directly. If this is not appropriate or satisfactory proceed next to the Director of Undergraduate Studies (135 Smith Hall 624-8008). If the problem is still not resolved you should go to the Vice-Chair of the department (schedule appointments in the General Chemistry/Records Office, 115 Smith Hall 624-0026). The final authority at the department level is the department Chair (139 Smith Hall 624-6000). In the unlikely event that you wish to take the problem beyond the department you should contact the IT Dean's Office (105 Walter Library 624-2006) or the Student Ombuds Service (SOS) (102 Johnston Hall 626-0891) or the Equal Opportunity and Affirmative Action Office (419 Morrill Hall 624-9547).

If the problem is with a teaching assistant you should first (if appropriate) try to solve it directly with the teaching assistant and next with the laboratory faculty instructor or appropriate Head TA. The General Chemistry Head TA may be contacted through the General Chemistry/Records Office or at 624-3803. If the problem cannot be resolved at this level you should take it to the Vice-Chair of the department. If the problem still is not resolved you should follow the procedure described beyond the Vice-Chair in the previous section.

GRADUATION AND BEYOND

How do you apply for Graduation

All students must submit an application for Graduation online at http://onestop.umn.edu/onestop/Graduating/Degree_Application_Procedures.html

The APAS form is used to clear you for graduation. Be sure to check this form well in advance of your graduation and clear all discrepancies prior to your final term. CLA Students Only - B-18 Johnston needs a final Degree Program Form filed with them to certify that you have completed all of the requirements.

Commencement

You must apply with your college office to take part in commencement.

How can I get job related experience while in school

Chemistry majors can check the job posting board outside of 135 Smith Hall. This is updated as frequently as jobs come in. You should also check the Career Services offices, OSLO, and the Office of Student Employment in the Donhowe Building. If you are interested in research experience, Directed Studies is a good opportunity. Another option is to do research here or at another college during the summer of your junior year. This is an excellent opportunity and a good way to check out potential Graduate Schools. Postings for these positions can be found in 135 Smith Hall.

What are employers looking for

Companies are looking for students who have taken the appropriate classes with reasonably good grades, have relevant job experience, and demonstrate experience working with other people in such situations as extracurricular activities. A research experience in the department can be very valuable in landing you a job.

What's available in the Career Services Offices

Both Career Services Offices conduct workshops, their videotapes give you tips on job hunting and resume writing, and their libraries contain information on a number of companies. Individual counseling is also available. These offices maintain lists of full-time, part-time, and summer jobs and can keep your resume on file for company representatives to review.

CLA - Career & Community Learning Center
411 STSS 612-624-7577 and 240 Appleby Hall 612-626-2044
email: clacareer@umn.edu
website: http://www.cclc.umn.edu/

CSE - 390 Shepherd Lab 612-624-4090
email: ccse@umn.edu
website: http://www.ccse.umn.edu/index.php

How do you use the Career Services Offices

It is important that you plan ahead. Do not wait until the year you are graduating. These offices provide numerous talks that will benefit you in life long career issues. Also they have many postings for part-time positions. When it comes time to get a full time job for after you graduate realize that most companies visit in the Fall so they can prepare their budgets for the coming year accordingly. Make sure you are registered with them at the latest the spring prior to your final year. You will need to pay a small fee when you register with the CSE Career Services Office. The more students from Chemistry that register with the Career Services Offices the better the chances are that companies will find it worthwhile to visit the campus.

Where can I find career information

In addition to the Career Services Offices you can check material out from the Chemistry Advising Office 135 Smith Hall on careers, companies, and job hunting skills. Chem 2910, 2920 Special Topics in Chemistry is a lunch hour seminar which features speakers from various departments and from industry. This is a good way to find out the numerous opportunities available to you with a chemistry degree.

Career Options

After graduating some chemistry majors go on to graduate school to receive an advanced degree and others begin their careers by working in the laboratories of companies. These companies may be large or small and their products are not necessarily chemicals, but consumer goods such as food, drugs and clothing, or cosmetics. Other areas in which a chemist can work are with the environment, energy, medical and regulatory agencies. The chemist is often responsible for analyzing the materials used, designing new modifications and developing entirely new products. Bachelors degrees in chemistry can be used in a wide variety of ways.

AN ADVANCED DEGREE

With a Chemistry degree you have a number of options for an advanced degree; medical, law, business, engineering or chemistry. However, in deciding between full-time graduate study immediately after obtaining the bachelors degree and full-time employment, you must consider a number of personal factors: abilities, career goals, financial resources, motivation. Some important questions to consider when thinking about attending graduate school are:

Why do I want to attend graduate school?
What are my plans after graduate school?
What are my goals, objectives, and expectations for graduate work?
How will a graduate degree affect my future career plans and goals?
Have I given enough thought to the type of degree I want to pursue-MS, MBA, PhD, JD, etc?
How will I survive financially while in graduate school?
Do I enjoy rigorous academic work that requires total time and effort?
Are my research skills such that I can define, implement, and carry out an original research project?
Do I qualify for admission on the basis of my grade point average, test scores, and/or educational prerequisites?

When should you begin making plans for graduate school

The sooner the better, and definitely by spring of the junior year of undergraduate study. Far too many students wait until their senior year to decide to pursue graduate study following graduation. Waiting until the senior year can limit one's opportunities and eliminate some choices of programs such as medicine, law, dentistry, and fellowships, which often require that some materials be filed during the junior year. During the early part of your junior year, gather information about the particular school or program of interest, take the appropriate admission test, and start a credential file. For those students who are already seniors or recent graduates, it's never too late. Get started by making applications and following through on the application process.

How do you evaluate the institutions and academic programs

There are many factors to consider when selecting the proper graduate school, such as whether your interest lies in chemistry, engineering, business, law, medicine, or another field. Where you do your graduate work can make a real difference in the value of your credentials upon receiving an advanced degree. So seek out those programs that have earned a reputation for excellence in you particular area of interest. Some questions to ask about the university or program you are considering:

Does the faculty exhibit special strengths and research qualities through their graduate advisees, published works, and funded research?
Are the libraries, laboratories, computers, and other research facilities adequate for you educational needs?
Are the graduates of the school or program sought by recruiters?
Does the department of interest offer sufficiently large and varied curriculum to allow you a broad offering of courses and options?
How senior are the professors in your area, what are their interests, and what will their availability be?
What are the degree requirements?
Will I have to do a thesis/dissertation?
Is financial support available?
How long will it take for me to complete my program?
How are the advisors assigned and selected?
Will I have a choice in who my major advisor will be?
Are study space or office carrels available for graduate students?
The national reputation of a school is determined by the quality of its faculty, library holdings, research facilities, and the success of its graduates.

Considering Chemistry Graduate School

Did you know that you get paid to go to graduate school in Chemistry? As a PhD or Masters student you receive a stipend of around $23,000 a year in most chemistry departments to be a TA (Teaching Assistant) or RA (Research Assistant) and tuition is generally waived. If you are interested in pursuing an advanced degree you can speak to an advisor and also attend talks on applying for Graduate Schools usually in the fall semester. It is best to apply in December of your Senior year; taking your GRE's (Graduate Records Exam) in October of the Senior year. To be considered for University Fellowships, which would include additional stipends to top students, you should have your application completed as early as possible during your Senior year and it is very important to have taken the GRE exam. Most applications include the following:

  • Complete transcripts from all schools
  • Two or three letters of recommendation
  • GRE's (General and Subject) varies with each school
  • Individual school's application
  • Personal statement

There are several National Fellowships for graduate study and these will go to the top students. Check with the chemistry advising office and the University Graduate Fellowship Office (313 Johnston Hall 625-7579) for information and application deadlines.

Graduate degrees in chemistry enable students to specialize in a particular subfield such as organic, inorganic, physical, biological, or analytical. Both the Masters and Ph.D. provide training for research positions. Generally, the Ph.D. prepares students for higher-level research and administrative positions and is considered the usual requirement for teaching or research positions in colleges and universities.

ENRICHMENT OPPORTUNITIES AND PROGRAMS

Undergraduate Research

Directed Studies Chem 2094 and 4094 Opportunities exist for chemistry majors to do laboratory research for credit, helping faculty members with their research. Credit assignments vary; normally each credit earned requires 30 hours of academic work a semester. Check out "Undergraduate Research Projects" on the departmental undergraduate website for information on specific projects. There is no pay connected with this work, but it gives students excellent laboratory experience. In order to register for 4094 you must be upper division or be currently registered for (or have already completed) an upper level Chemistry course. A written report is required for a grade with all registrations for 4094. If you are taking 2094 and doing library research you also need to do a written report.
UROP is a University program allowing students to work in conjunction with faculty on faculty research. Financial awards to undergraduates for research, scholarly, or creative projects include stipends (up to $1400) and/or expense allowances (up to $300), for a maximum award of $1,700. For more information and application material see the UROP Office in 109 Appleby Hall, 625-3853 or at their website. Particular attention should be paid to the deadlines for applications. Students have had a high probability for success in receiving UROP support.

Summer Research Fellows The Department of Chemistry supports a number of junior chemistry majors during the summer to do research. Students who are interested in this opportunity should check out the Heisig/Gleysteen Summer Research website.

ACS-Student Affiliates Chapter The objectives of the ACS-SA are to provide an opportunity for students of chemistry, chemical engineering, and related disciplines to become better acquainted, to secure the intellectual stimulation that arises from professional association, to obtain experience in preparing and presenting technical material before a chemical audience, to instill a professional pride in the chemical disciplines, and to foster an awareness of the responsibilities and challenges of the modern chemist. As a member, you receive Chemical and Engineering News (C&E News , a weekly short magazine on current chemical issues), the national Student Affiliate newsletter, and other literature on books and publications. Members also receive a large discount on scientific journals. The ACS, with over 140,000 members, lists employment opportunities through a data bank in Washington and the National Employment Clearing House at all ACS National Meetings. For further information check out their website.

Alpha Chi Sigma Professional Chemical Fraternity 632 Ontario Street SE, Chemical Sciences Professional Fraternity. This coed professional fraternity brings together students of chemistry, chemical engineering, materials science, biochemistry, and other chemistry related fields, both as friends and as professional colleagues. Website is: http://www.axeb.org. Email is: axe@umn.edu

Outreach Program The Department of Chemistry is involved in community outreach and welcomes any student involvement. A group of undergraduate and graduate students along with faculty present chemistry demonstrations to primary and secondary students in their schools and at department sponsored events such as National Chemistry Day to create an interest in the sciences. Volunteers go in groups of at least three (depending on the size of the audience). All materials are supplied and organized for a variety of demonstrations. There is at least one visit a week throughout the academic year. You may volunteer for as many as your schedule permits. If interested come to one of the meetings we have the first or second week of the semester or check out their website.

Society of Women Engineers (SWE) 107 Lind Hall. SWE is a student chapter of the National Society of Women Engineers, a professional organization for women in engineering and related fields. SWE is open to anyone and sponsors many programs on campus each year.

Useful links for Chemistry Students

U of MN Science & Engineering Library http://sciweb.lib.umn.edu/

Chem Resources (including SciFinder Scholar, Beilstein, Dictionaries, MSDS Database, ChemFinder, IUPAC & more) http://sciweb.lib.umn.edu/subjlist.phtml#chem

ACS Style Guide - Writing a Scientific Paper http://www.oup.com/us/samplechapters/0841234620/?view=usa

Drawing Structures

ChemDraw http://www.camsoft.com/
ISIS Draw http://www.mdli.com/

Periodic Table of the Elements

http://www.webelements.com/
http://www.chemicalelements.com/

Premeds: http://www.studentdoctor.net/

Tips For Effective Poster Presentations

Through the process of trial and error, scientific societies and veteran poster presenters have come up with the following rules of thumb for effective poster presentations.

1. Prepare a banner in very large type containing a descriptive title, the authors, and their affiliations. This banner should be situated high up on the poster so it can be seen above people's heads from a distance of 15 to 20 feet.

2. Bracket the poster with an introduction at the beginning and a list of conclusions at the end. Remember that many people will read only these two parts of your poster.

3. Make the flow of information in a poster explicit with the use of inch-high numerals. The flow of information should be organized in columns running down the poster, not in rows running across it.

4. The poster should be self-explanatory, so that its main points will be communicated even if you are not there. But don't load it down with large amounts of methodological detail or lists of references. Curious observers can ask you about these things directly.

5. Each illustration should have a prominent headline containing its take-home message in just a few words. The text below the illustrations should be in smaller type and should contain far more information than the typical figure legend. Only the most interested readers will spend time with this text.

6. Prepare a presentation of no more than five minutes (preferably two to four minutes) to walk interested parties quickly through your poster.

7. Make the poster well in advance and practice it with your colleagues, much as you would practice an oral presentation.

8. Taking into account Murphy's Law, bring extra push pins (not thumbtacks) with you to the meeting. And consider making up two complete copies of the poster. Mail one copy ahead or send it with a friend.

9. At the poster session, let people peruse you poster for 30 seconds or a minute before approaching them to ask if you may lead them through it. But don't be shy about introducing yourself, since the opportunity to meet people is one of the major advantages of poster sessions.

10. If you have a preprint of a article already prepared, consider having a supply ready at the poster session to hand out to people who are especially interested. If not, take down names and addresses and offer to send the preprint when it is ready.

 

 
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